Imagine a leaf — but not your standard, sugar maple variety. Instead, it's a small wafer that mimics the process of photosynthesis. This "artificial leaf" could create enough energy from the sun to run an entire household.
It's a dream of the leaf's inventor, Harvard chemist Dan Nocera — one that he thinks is within reach. But, he admits, the transition to clean energy is happening slower than he'd like.
The U.S. gasoline economy is made possible by decades worth of infrastructure, from railroads to tanker ships to gas stations. But the mass adoption of solar technologies would require a whole new set of systems to store, transport, and convert hydrogen gas, the product of photosynthesis, into usable energy.
“You’re not just paying for the stuff – the sunlight and the solar panel,” Nocera says. “You also have to pay for building an entire new infrastructure. So that’s really the challenge.”
Nocera and his colleagues are looking to developing countries like India that can provide more of a clean slate for building and adopting new, hydrogen-based systems. “It’s easier to implement,” he says, “because you don’t have to go up against a 100-year infrastructure.”
“As a scientist, I have to realize it’s all about cost,” Nocera says. To bring green energy costs low enough to compete with coal, oil, and gas, we need to see big investments in innovation and implementation – bigger, he says, than the government alone can provide.
“Government can play a role initially as a catalyst, but it’s wrong to look at them long-term,” he says. “It really has to be the market.”
A couple of unexpected partners from the private sector are already jumping into the game and speeding the process along. The defense company Lockheed Martin, for one, a number of renewable energy companies, including Nocera’s company Sun Catalytix.
But not all energy investments are equal, he says. The recent surge in funding for natural gas fracking has put a “wet blanket on innovation,” he believes. He says he’s seen a number of small, promising companies fail as the market shifts towards natural gas, which, despite its benefits, releases into the atmosphere and does not provide a long-term energy solution.
Pushing for Change
While owning a Prius or using LED light bulbs are steps in the right direction, they are too small to make the kinds of changes necessary to cut down on large-scale damage to the atmosphere, Nocera says.
“We like to do a little local thing, and then point our finger at everybody else, including big oil or big energy,” he says. “We haven’t as a society committed.”
Dan Nocera also appeared on the very first broadcast of Innovation Hub. Flash back to his first interview .